You can get encouragingly accurate values for the speed of sound in the school laboratory using a tape measure and two smartphones (or tablets) running the Phyphox app.
Phyphox (pronounced FEE-fox) is an award-winning free app that was developed by physicists at Aachen University who wanted to give users direct access to the many sensors (e.g. accelerometers and magnetometers) which are standard features on many smartphones. In effect, it turns even the humblest smartphone or tablet into a multifunctional measuring instrument comparable to one of Star Trek’s famous ‘tricorders’.
To measure the speed of sound, we need two smartphones or tablets running Phyphox. We will be using the ‘Acoustic Stopwatch’ which measures the time between two acoustic events.
Step 1: Place two devices a measured distance s apart. Typically about 2 or 3 m should be OK otherwise the sound made by A will not be loud enough to control stopwatch B — this can be established through trial and error and depends on many factors including the background noise level.
Step 2: Person A makes a loud sound (a clap or a single syllable shout like ‘Hey!’ is good).
Step 5: B makes a loud sound in response.
Step 6: The loud sound made by B reaches stopwatch B and makes it stop. Let’s call the time displayed tB. This measures the delay between the sound from A reaching stopwatch B and B reacting to the sound and stopping the clock. It includes the time taken for the initial sound travelling from the device to B, B’s reaction time, and the time taken for the sound made by B to travel to stopwatch B. B does not have to be particularly ‘quick off the mark’ to respond to A’s sound — although the shorter the time then the less likely it is then a background noise will interrupt the experiment.
Step 7: The sound made by B travels toward stopwatch A.
Step 8: The sound made by B reaches stopwatch A and makes it stop. Let’s call the time recorded on stopwatch A tA.
If we break down the events included in tA and tB, we find that tA is always larger than tB:
If we subtract tA – tB we find that this is the time it takes sound to travel a distance of 2s.
Step 9: We can therefore use this formula to find the v the speed of sound.
We have found that this method works well giving mean values of about 350 m/s for the speed of sound (which will vary with air temperature). This video models the method.
And so we have a reasonably practicable method of measuring the speed of that doesn’t involve complex equipment that is unfamiliar to most students; or a method that involves finding a large and featureless wall that produces a detectable echo when a loud sound is made from a point several metres in front of it.
I don’t know about you, but as a physics teacher, I feel cheated. If it doesn’t involve a double beam oscilloscope, a signal generator, two microphones and two power amplifiers then I simply don’t want to know about it . . .
The Rite of AshkEnte, quite simply, summons and binds Death. Students of the occult will be aware that it can be performed with a simple incantation, three small bits of wood and 4cc of mouse blood, but no wizard worth his pointy hat would dream of doing anything so unimpressive; they knew in their hearts that if a spell didn’t involve big yellow candles, lots of rare incense, circles drawn on the floor with eight different colours of chalk and a few cauldrons around the place then it simply wasn’t worth contemplating.Terry Pratchett, ‘Mort’ (1987)